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Thread: Pedalboard Reflections

  1. #31
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    PART II cont'd - Core effects for amplified acoustic performance

    SECTION B: NON-ESSENTIAL CORE EFFECTS - COMPRESSION, DELAY, CHORUS, AND TREMOLO

    B.1: Compression

    Compressors either reduce volume of parts of the signal exceeding a certain threshold or increase volume of parts below a certain threshold. This has the effect of shrinking a signal's dynamic range. Most compressors offer control over at least some of the following settings:
    • Threshold - the minimum and maximum volumes allowed to go uncompressed
    • Ratio - the amount of compression applied to the parts of a signal outside the minimum and maximum thresholds
    • Attack - the amount of time allowed to pass before an offending signal is compressed
    • Release - the amount of time that must pass once a signal falls below the threshold before the compressor stops
    • Knee - the profile of the compression itself. hard knee means it quickly reigns in offending parts, soft knee means it massages the signal into acceptable limits

    Most compressor pedals combine many of these features into one or two simplified controls, usually labelled "sustain" or "compression". My experience has taught me to seek out simple-to-operate compressors that don't color the tone or mess with the attack in overly obvious ways.

    Before you ignore compressors because they undermine the 'ukulele's already limited dynamic range, consider the following:
    • a compressor can prevent the wolf notes from popping out of the mix
    • you can make your 'ukulele a bit louder in the mix without worrying about occasionally covering up your bandmates
    • a compressor can bring the volume of hammer-ons to the same volume as picked notes
    • placing a compressor before overdrive or distortion will go a long way toward getting a more even response out of the pedal
    • at higher sound pressure levels, a compressor can help you eke more sustain out of certain notes or induce musical feedback

    Special note: running the signal from a piezo pickup into a compressor can have unintended consequences. Because the pickup turns any "extraneous" vibration into a signal (including transient sounds such as the sound of nails on strings or background sounds such as skin brushing across the soundboard), these vibrations can be further amplified by the compressor. Compressors can also induce quite a bit of feedback. The more resonant your pickup, the more apparent these side effects will be.

    B.2: Delay

    Records the input in a buffer than recalls it after a certain interval of time to create an "echo" of an incoming signal. Common controls include:
    • time - time between the attack and delay; also the time between each repeat thereafter
    • level - the level of the first repeats in relation to the original signal
    • repeats - the number of repeats across which the initial level fades. In analog delays (see below), this is accomplished by feeding the delays themselves back into the unit, resulting in rapidly decaying tails and a certain amount of feedback within the delay unit itself

    Delays can be classified into three major categories:
    • Analog - short maximum delay times, each repeat of the echo is more decayed than the previous one, giving a dark tone to the delays. Low fidelity, generally unobtrusive but very obvious in more extreme settings
    • Tape - uses a looping tape and recording and playback heads to reproduce delays recorded to a strip of magnetic tape. The repeats degrade more slowly than with analog delays, and various modulation effects become increasingly prevalant in the repeats as the tape ages
    • Digital - abritrarily long maximum delay times, echoes can be pristine or processed in a variety of ways, including assigning the echoes to various rhythmic pattern

    Some delays include additional features such as tap tempo (tap a momentary switch a few times to set the length of the delay), and the most powerful digital delay pedals offer convincing emulations of both analog and tape delay types.

    With the possible exception of EQ, compression and delay are probably the most versatile effects in all of Part II. Compressors can be used to even out dynamics when chicken picking or playing rhythm parts, bring the 'ukulele forward in a mix, change the responsiveness of later pedals in the chain, or even provide a slight boost to the instrument's sustain. Delays can be set short with with one or two repeats to get more of a slapback kind of effect, set short with many repeats to emulate reverb, set long with one or two repeats to tastefully gird up your tone for a solo, or set long with many repeats for some crazy spacey sound effects.

    B.3: Chorus

    Copies your signal, delays the copy by some amount of time, then modulates the delay (changes the delay by an amount which varies over time) before mixing it back into your signal. The modulation of delay in the copy results in a modulation of pitch per the Doppler effect, and when the two signals are combined, the net result is a sound reminiscent of multiple musicians playing roughly in unison.

    When played on a reentrant-tuned 'ukulele, many chords already possess a chorus-like quality due to differences in pitch and phase between the 1st and 4th strings. A chorus pedal broadens this effect to encompass more of your signal.

    Chorus pedals generally provide the following controls:
    • Delay - sets the minimum delay time
    • Depth - controls the amount of pitch and delay modulation
    • Rate - sets the rate at which the pitch and delay times sweep through their range

    Generally speaking, a subtle chorus can be used to thicken the sound of the 'ukulele whereas a wetter chorus will interfere with the perception of accurate intonation. Both are useful.

    B.4: Tremolo

    Modulates the amplitude of your signal, resulting in a cycling of volume over time. This causes your sound to pulse in a manner similar to the diaphragm vibrato often used by flutists. The exact profile of this pulsing effect varies hugely, both in general waveform and in precise properties of the volume swing.

    The general waveform for the modulation can fall into one of three categories (keep in mind that this waveform will usually be somewhat lopsided rather than symmetrical; in other words, the waves themselves will be steeper on one side than the other):
    • triangle - very defined peaks and valleys, with very clear difference between the rises and falls in volume
    • sinusoidal - a smoother undulation
    • square - a very forward, "hard" dip and rise in volume. can sound like a helicopter at high speeds

    Tremolo as an effect was popularized in guitar amplifiers, where it was accomplished by several means. In addition to cylcing the volume, each of these of these means produced particular side effects in the overall tone. The methods most commonly emulated by pedals (in the case of photocells, many pedals actually contain a photocell circuit in them) and their effects on tone are summarized below:
    • photocell - the overall EQ contour of the signal changes subtly as the volume shifts. generally more square than triangle
    • tube bias - the quiet parts see a slight cut to the fundamental and a boost to the 3rd and 5th partials while the loud parts exhibit more obvious harmonic distortion
    • harmonic tremolo - not so much a shift in volume as a shift between a bright high band of EQ and a dark low band of EQ

    Special note: many ring modulators and certain pitch shifters (see Part III) can emulate this form of modulation.
    Last edited by bacchettadavid; 10-21-2018 at 08:33 AM.
    "Who hears music, feels his solitude Peopled at once -- for how count heart-beats plain / Unless a company, with hearts which beat, / Come close to the musician, seen or no?" - Robert Browning, "Balaustion's Adventure"

  2. #32
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    Quote Originally Posted by photoshooter View Post
    I'm a woodworking hobbyist so I ended up making a small pedalboard. I bought some pedals that interested me. . . . The order of the pedals is:

    Baggs Para Acoustic
    Donner Tuner
    Donner Compressor
    DigiTech Trio+
    Donner Blues Drive
    MicroPog
    Donner Tutti Love (chorus pedal)
    Donner Yellow Fall (delay pedal)
    Hall of Fame Reverb has replaced the Behringer Reverb pictured

    . . . This is all still quite foreign to me so if David or anyone else has suggestions, criticisms, feedback it would be most welcomed.
    Photoshooter, what a beautiful board! If you're willing to build a board to my own specs, I would gladly pay you. Mind if I shoot you a PM?

    Try the following signal chain modification: move everything after the Trio+ into its effects loop. I'd actually recommend the following chain:
    Instrument -> Para DI -> effects loop send (requires stereo Y cable to 2 mono plugs) -> tuner -> compressor -> effects loop return on Para DI -> Blues Drive -> Trio+ -> effects loop send on Trio+ -> Everything else -> Trio+ effects loop return -> amp.

    With this chain, you can EQ after the compressor (useful) and keep the compressor from interacting with changes to the level controls on the Para DI. It will also allow you to shape the blues driver with the Para DI's eq settings and leave the reverb and delay on while training the Trio+.

    Alternatively, if you were going out to a PA or needed a balanced signal, I'd nest the above chain inside the Para DI's effects loop.

    Quote Originally Posted by jelow1966 View Post
    It's generally a good idea to keep the compressor first too, though I'm now wondering what would happen if it was after the distortion...hmmm.
    I've tried it; the exact effect will depend on the particular distortion and compressor, but you will generally get a lot of noise from the piezo pickups. Interestingly, running a compressor that affects the attack after a more dynamically responsive overdrive really allows you to shape the amount of distortion without affecting the overall level too much.

    Quote Originally Posted by ksiegel View Post
    I find this all very interesting, but far from my needs. At least, since I don't really understand what all effects do with a ukulele, I don't need them. If I understood what you guys are talking about, that might be different.
    . . .
    So please, instead of just telling us "this is what I use, and the best way to use it", how about "This is what I use, and this is what it does..."
    -Kurt
    Kurt, now that Part II is up, let me know if it provides enough "this is what it does" for your needs. Your input is very much appreciated as I craft Part III.

    Quote Originally Posted by etudes View Post
    Thanks for asking- I've been accumulating pedals for some years, mostly tailored for acoustic guitar. . . . My focus is more towards playing solo ukulele instrumentals.
    Etudes, I'm digging that delay pedal. As an experiment, try the following: kick the reverb or looper off the board, (if the reverb, set the Nova for a short delay time to emulate a reverb or a longer delay when you want something more like an echo), then stick the OCD after the Sessions (that way you can control the OCD a bit more with the saturation and compression settings on the DI). That would give you a broader array of tones to experiment with.

    Alternatively, replace the delay pedal with the OCD, and stick the reverb before the OCD. The result won't be clean, but it might inspire some new ideas for how to use the looper. You might also be able to cram the SP comp on the board and use it as a boost.

    P.S. Nothing wrong with the power supply on top. I'm actually going to be moving mine to the top of my board for its Mk. II iteration. Also, my own cable management leaves a lot to be desired.

    And with that, I'm off to draft Part III.
    Last edited by bacchettadavid; 10-14-2018 at 09:03 PM.
    "Who hears music, feels his solitude Peopled at once -- for how count heart-beats plain / Unless a company, with hearts which beat, / Come close to the musician, seen or no?" - Robert Browning, "Balaustion's Adventure"

  3. #33
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    Woo hoo! Lots to digest here. And yes, some of it just a tad over my head. But that keeps it fun. Thanks for the feedback David and thanks for all the effort you put into this thread. I sent you a PM

  4. #34

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    @ bacchettadavid

    Thanks for the nod!

    I am glad my contributions here on the forum were helpful.

    This thread is a great idea, and your detailed presentation on this topic is wonderful.

    I will admit that I've not had time to read it all, but will come back and do so later on, as well as share how I use effects and how I have them set up.

    This is a great start, and I am eagerly looking forward to seeing this thread evolve...
    Guinea proverb: "A cow that has no tail should not try to chase away flies."

  5. #35
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    Part III - Auxiliary and expressive effects and signal chain considerations

    INTRODUCTION

    Whereas Part II of this guide focuses on the subtler applications of effects, Part III directs its gaze towards more overtly affected sounds.

    Part III is broken into two parts: the first is on effects themselves while the second is on how their order in the signal chain affects how they work. Please note that the taxonomy below (filter, gain, modulation, time, etc.) is somewhat arbitrary as many effects in Part III operate in multiple domains of the signal.

    There's a lot of ground to cover here, so let's get started.

    A. GAIN - OVERDRIVE AND DISTORTION, FUZZ, AND VOLUME

    A.1: Clean/gain boost and compression - see Part II

    A.2: Overdrive and Distortion

    When a clean/gain boost is put in front of a tube amp, that boost can be used to push the amp to the point that the power tubes begin to distort. As the output volume of a tube amp increases, the power tubes begin to compress the signal. Once this compression reaches a certain point, the power tubes begin to distort the signal in the following ways:
    • the dynamics become noticeably compressed
    • peaks begin to form at the even-numbered harmonics
    • the most prominent peaks and valleys of the waveform are sheared off, resulting in clipping
    Together, these features "saturate" the sound and create a type of distortion many listeners find pleasing; however, this sort of tube amp distortion is usually achieved only in an amp's upper volume tiers.

    Overdrive and distortion are both attempts to recreate this effect at somewhat lower volumes. Overdrive pedals combine a focused EQ boost designed to push a tube amp into distortion at lower volumes with a harsh level-dependent distortion coming from "soft" clipping diodes in its circuit. In contrast to overdrive pedals, distortion pedals rely less on a gain boost to the amp and instead saturate the signal themselves.

    Most overdrive and distortion pedals feature the following controls:
    • Gain/Distortion - alters the amount of distortion applied by the pedal
    • Tone - functions as an EQ. The exact behavior of this knob varies with the type of overdrive
    • Level - level of the output signal
    In addition to these controls, some overdrive and distortion pedals provide 2- or 3-band EQ controls (whether these controls affect the signal before or after the distortion is applied varies with the model).

    Neither of these effects will work as intended in most amplified 'ukulele contexts. The focused EQ boost of overdrive pedals will not push most PA or monitor speakers into distortion but will instead function as a signal coloration, and the nail noise and harmonic complexity picked up by piezo transducers will make many distortion pedals sound harsh and fizzy. A pseudo-solution to the former problem exists in the form of either guitar amps or amp modellers (see section E), but the latter problem is inherent to the design of the offending distortion pedals themselves.

    Special note: anti-feedback tools are often necessary to render overdrive or distortion usable at anything above bedroom sound levels.

    A.3: Fuzz

    Fuzz represents an attempt to reproduce the sound of a fundamentally broken amplifier (usually punctured or torn speaker cones or misaligned tubes). First pedals to make tubes distort, then pedals to replace distorted tubes, and now pedals to reproduce the sound of broken speaker cones and misaligned tubes; what is up with people and malfunctioning tube amps?

    Anyways, fuzz pedals press the signal into a square waveform, resulting in a sonic texture that is fuzzy or wooly. This adds a harsh squelch to your tone that almost completely destroys any hint of 'ukulele, but it's a loveable sound nonetheless. Unfortunately, WILL BE DEVELOPED IN A REVISION.

    Special note: fuzz is a *very* feedback-inducing effect, with many fuzz pedals creating spontaneous feedback in certain settings. Anti-feedback tools are strongly recommended here.

    A.4: Volume

    Volume pedals are probably the least interesting of all the pedals in Part III, and because I love you all so much, I'm going to spare you the details and get to the point.

    Just kidding. I am going to microscopically analyze volume pedals with a level of detail so precise you're almost guaranteed to find it literally excruciating.

    Volume pedals come in several physical form factors: rocker pedals, knobs, and rollers. Rockers are the most common and are useful for swells, maintaining constant volume across a decay, or for dynamically phrasing in; knobs take up less space on a crowded pedalboard and are good for "set and forget" operation (typically to keep levels in check towards the end of a signal chain), and rollers (at least the single model I know to exist) offer a compromise between the two form factors.

    Different rocker pedals also feature differing amounts of travel. Since most volume pedals use the rocker format, I feel it necessary to discuss the two most prominent rocker designs: potentiometer, or "pot", and electro-optical. In an pot-based design, a drum connected to logarithmic potentiometer mounted to the base of the enclosure is connected to the enclosure lid via a string. Rotational movement of the lid is transferred to the potentiometer via the string and drum in one of two ways:
    • Spring method - in this method, a spring takes up any slack in the string. The string makes several loops around the drum and passes through a ring on the underside of the lid and a shaft located along the posterior margin of the base. Both ends of the string are affixed to hooks on either end of a spring that takes up any slack in the system
    • Set screw method - the necessary friction comes from a small loop around a set screw screwed into the drum. Both ends of the string are affixed to mounting plates located on the underside of the lid on either side of the potentiometer. The length of the string is wrapped around the drum in two partial loops connected by a perpendicular loop around a set screw. Any undue slack in the system resulting is easily removed by pulling more of the working ends into the mounting brackets
    In contrast, electro-optical designs are mechanically simple. A light mounted to the underside of the lid moves either closer to or further away from a photoresistor, thereby controlling the output signal level.

    In addition to these differences in construction, the following functional differences persist between the two designs:
    • Maintenance - pots, strings, and springs all wear out and require periodic replacement (a simple operation). The only moving part in an electro-optical design is the lid itself
    • Smoothness of swell - since a potentiometer cannot be "half-on", pot-based design always exhibit a bump in volume when the rocker is moved from "fully off" to "slightly on". Electro-optical designs provide continuously variable output all the way down to completely off
    • Passive vs. active - pot-based designs come in both passive and active variants. Electro-optical designs, requiring current for the aforementioned light, are always active

    As noted in the list above, volume pedals can be either passive or active. Passive volume pedals don't require external power and are basically guitar volume knobs in rocker pedal format. When they feature a tuner out, the output is usually split between the tuner out and amp out, and this can create high-end rolloff in the signal due to the tuner loading the signal when powered up (a true bypass tuner can solve some of this problem when turned off alhough this defeats the point of a tuner out). Active volume pedals require a power supply and usually provide a buffer (see section E) or low-gain preamp and isolated tuner output.

    Passive volume pedals also come in varying input impedance. The most common values are 25 kOhm, 50 kOhm, 250 kOhm, 500 kOhm, 1 MOhm, and 10 MOhm. If you are using a passive pickup with no preamp and intend to use a volume pedal, you should seek a volume pedal with an input impedance of no less than 1 MOhm (10 MOhm wwould probably be preferable). Alternatively, a buffered pedal (not true bypass) placed between your instrument and volume pedal will allow you to use a 25 kOhm passive volume pedal, but you'll still have to worry about loading from the buffered pedal itself.

    And in the end, all a volume pedal does is place a volume fader at your foot, usually in a rocker pedal format. Roll forward to increase volume or roll back to reduce volume.

    Simple, ain't it?

    Ready to tar and feather me yet? I promise I won't do that to you again, so stay tuned for the rest of Part III.
    Last edited by bacchettadavid; 10-16-2018 at 12:08 AM.
    "Who hears music, feels his solitude Peopled at once -- for how count heart-beats plain / Unless a company, with hearts which beat, / Come close to the musician, seen or no?" - Robert Browning, "Balaustion's Adventure"

  6. #36
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    Thanks for another installment.. might be the weekend before I have time to give it a proper reading!
    Last edited by etudes; 10-16-2018 at 06:43 PM.
    "Everyone I know who is into the Ukulele is 'crackers' so get yourself a few and enjoy yourselves" - George Harrison


    the ukes and year of acquisition:
    Pono RTSH-C-PC Cedar/Rosewood tenor 2016
    Koaloha KSM-02 Koa longneck soprano 2016
    Blackbird Farallon 2017
    2008 Kiwaya KTC-02 Mahogany concert 2018
    aNueNue Moonbird Spruce/Rosewood concert 2018

  7. #37
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    I'm still playing catch up. Good section on compressors (and taming wolf notes) you've got me thinking of re-introducing my xotic compressor back to the board..

  8. #38
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    David, I’m glad that you are constantly addressing the uniqueness of ukulele’s with piezoelectric pickup. I learned the hard way that EFX pedals that are great for guitars can be quite mediocre for a ukulele.

    Although hardly at a tipping point, multi source pickups are now becoming available for Ukes. Anuenue have just come out with an “Air” model that combines a microphone and a piezo under saddle pickup. MiSi has a similar model. These allow you to send the signal from either or blend them.

    I wonder if these will make a wider range of EFX pedals more viable for Ukes?
    "All worthwhile things in life should be easy to learn but hard to master"

    Hoffmann Lutherie - Baritone - Master Grade Ebony and AAA Red Spruce
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    Hoffmann Lutherie - Concert - Angry Owl Ebony and Cedar

  9. #39
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    PART III continued

    B. FILTERS - WAH AND PITCH

    [B]B.1: Equalization - see Part II

    [B]B.2: Wah

    Applies an EQ filter with a high Q to your signal, creating a steep peak in the frequency response (see the Equalization section in Part II for a more thorough explanation). The peak of tightly grouped boosted frequencies can then be translated across the spectrum using a rocker pedal. This sounds similar to a person saying "ooh-wah-ooh-wah" and gives the overall impression of you moving forward and backward in the mix.

    Interestingly, you can sort of simulate this effect by picking and strumming the strings in different places along their lengths (try strumming all along the length of the strings from the saddle to the nut then back again) or by applying varying amounts of pressure to the soundboard with your strumming forearm. Either of these methods will serve to limit the amount of upper harmonic information in your 'ukulele's tone, and this will roughtly approximate the sweeping Q of the wah effect.

    Special note: If you intend to play at high volume, sweeping the peak around will induce feedback as it moves through your instrument's resonances unless you can filter those frequencies out with a notch filter.

    B.3: Octavers, Pitch Shifters and Harmonizers

    Thus far, this guide has focused on delays in or filtering of the signal. In this section, our focus shifts toward frequency and/or pitch manipulation.

    Pitch is a perception rooted im the relationships between different frequencies in a given tone. True true pitch shifting requires the presevation of these ratio relationships, something usually accomplished through altered playback rates of a recording. Even chorus, which can detune a signal somewhat, depends upon first recording the signal into a buffer. Manipulating pitch in real time is difficult, so most "pitch-shifting" effects resort to trickery to create the general impression of a pitch shift.

    Octavers represent the simplest form of pitch alteration. The octave's simple 2:1 harmonic ratio makes it a prime candidate for pitch manipulation, and several analog options exist for creating octaves above or below the signal. Popular methods of achieving octave up include:
    • Full-wave rectification: clone the signal, invert the clone, then mix both waves together and filter out any troughs. This results in the creation of many harmonics absent from the original signal and results in a fuzz-like timbre.
    • Multiply a signal by itself using a ring modulator. This will boost peaks originally present in the signal as well as produce the sums and differences of all the individual frequencies within the signal. Because ukuleles produce harmonically complex signals, this method will generally produce many extraneous peaks, resulting in a metallic timbre.
    Common octave down options include:
    • Use a flip-flop circuit to convert the signal into a square wave with approximately 1/2 the overall frequency. This turns the signal into either on or off, so don't expect any subtle variations in dynamics due to harmonics, and note that the signal must be loud enough relative to the noise to trigger the flip-flop for it to work. Your bottom octave might cut in and out and will definitely sound fuzzy of the signal.
    Note that none of these methods is clean though digital methods can achieve cleaner results. Digital octavers partially sample a signal then repeat that very short sample in either double- or half-time while filling in the missing pieces with more repeated cycles or synthesis. This can preserve roughly the same timbre as the original tone, but it still isn't a perfect representation of an actual octave above or below the note played on the instrument since actual notes in different registers of the same instrument have different timbres.

    Octavers can add a touch of low frequency to 'ukulele's tone, and they can emulate steel drums, synth pads, etc. Settings for the number of octaves and whether those octaves are above and/or below the fundamental vary between models, with some digital octavers even providing polyphonic options. As a general rule, digital models track the 'ukulele more consistently than analog offerings which are often "confused" by the complex harmonics in an 'ukulele signal.

    Pitch shifters and harmonizers represent the more complex pitch effects. Pitch shifters can shift pitch by intervals other than an octave, and many pitch shifters provide additional features such as detuning and pitch bend modulations. These effects are almost always digital and work in a manner similar to the digital octavers outlined above. Harmonizers are subset of pitch shifters that allow you to blend the signal between the original and pitch shifted versions. Many harmonizers can also harmonize diatonically within a specific key. These pedals come in a variety of form factors, but almost all of them are digital.

    C. MODULATION - FLANGER AND PHASER

    Every effect in this category relies on a cyclically changing value. Being partially time-based effects, modulation effects all pair especially well with reverb and delay.

    C.1: Chorus and Tremolo - see Part II

    C.2: Phaser and Flanger

    Phasers clone the signal then alter the phase of the clone before mixing the clone back into the original. The amount of phase shift applied to the clone is frequency-dependent, and this results in phase cancelling, forming a notch at the frequencies effected. In a phaser, several phase shifts are applied simultaneously, forming a series of notches across the frequency spectrum, and these phase shifts are then modulated so that the cancelled out frequencies (notches) are swept across the frequency spectrum in tandem with one another.

    Because the notches are each created independently of one another, they need not be harmonically related. This means that they can be evenly spaced and swept in parallel motion, minimizing their timbral impact on the tone of the signal and lending to phasers a soft "whooshing" quality.

    By bringing these notches into definite harmonic relationships, a much more overt form of modulation can be arrived at: flanging. Flangers work in one of two ways:
    • Similarly to the phasers outlined above (except with many more stages) but combined with a very short version of the delay modulation found in chorus effects. In this type, the sweeping notches are then attuned to one another electronically
    • Through the use of an extremely brief delay that is then modulated. In this type, the delay is so brief that the clone and original signal phase cancel at specific harmonically related frequencies, and the modulation in the delay causes the notches to sweep
    In either method, the harmonic relationships between the notches and the original signal content drastically affect the timbre of the signal as the notches sweep through the spectrum, resulting in a uniquely obvious jet plane-like "swoosh".

    Flangers exist in the middle ground between chorus (delay modulation resulting in pitch modulation with some phase modulation at lower frequencies) and phasers (phase modulation), and can emulate either in more moderate settings. If you only invest in one modulation effect and want options, a flanger is your best best.
    Last edited by bacchettadavid; 10-30-2018 at 06:27 PM.
    "Who hears music, feels his solitude Peopled at once -- for how count heart-beats plain / Unless a company, with hearts which beat, / Come close to the musician, seen or no?" - Robert Browning, "Balaustion's Adventure"

  10. #40
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    Love for the Digitech Droptune octave-down pedal. Best tracking I've heard.

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